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Sources of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)

Source of the table: Hazardous substances of specific concern to the Baltic Sea Final report of the HAZARDOUS project (2009) (BSEP No. 119), pages 37-43.

SubstanceSources of discharges to aquatic environmentSources of emissions to atmosphere

Industrial waste water (e.g. textile industry 1 and laundries

Landfills 2

Production of HBCDD

The industrial sector or professional use has been identified as a relevant source if the emission factor is relatively high or if it has been identified as risk use in national or EU risk assessments. The significance of other activities (e.g. STPs and landfills) has been evaluated on the basis of measured effluent concentrations. It should be noted that all below mentioned sectors may not be relevant in all HELCOM countries and these should be identified at national level (e.g. within national programs under the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan).


1 using the chemicals or imported semi-manufactured textile products containing HBCDD

2  waste containing HBCDD has been estimated to increase in the future

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